Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia
Nursing Interventions for Pneumonia
Pneumonia is the condition that causes inflammation in lungs. Pneumonia is commonly caused by viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu) can also become a significant cause of pneumonia. During such situations, the lungs inevitably experience build up of fluids. Several micro-organisms cause pneumonia. Pneumonic inflammation of the lungs occurs due to collection of cellular wastes and blood cells within the air sacs within the lungs.
Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are common causes of pneumonia in young children and infants. Bacteria such asStreptococcus pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, too.
There are many symptoms of pneumonia, and some of them, like a cough or a sore throat, are associated with many other common infections. Often, people get pneumonia after they’ve had an upper respiratory tract infection like a cold.
Symptoms of pneumonia can include: Cough with a yellow or greenish mucus or Phlegm, Fever often with chills and the shakes, Soreness or pain in the chest, worsened by breathing deeply or coughing, Shallow breathing, Shortness of breath, Bloody mucus or phlegm, Headache, Sweating and sometimes clammy skin, Fatigue and weakness, Decreased appetite.
Other symptoms of pneumonia are coughing up blood, vomiting, nausea, joint and muscle pain, getting the chills and having blueness of the skin.
When pneumonia is caused by bacteria, the person tends to become sick quickly and develops a high fever and has difficulty breathing. When it’s caused by a virus, symptoms generally appear more gradually and may be less severe.
Pneumonia diagnosed after a series of x-rays, MRIs and tests done on the mucus or phlegm from the throat. It can also be detected with a blood count test. If there is a high number of white blood cells then that means there is an infection present in the body.
Pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization but severe cases sometimes call for hospitalization. Pneumonia home care that involves rest, antibiotics and lots of fluids can help to rid the body of pneumonia. If patients do not heal within a specified amount of time by the doctor then they will have to be admitted into a hospital.
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Increased Body Temperature
- Risk for Infection
- Activity Intolerance
- Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements
1. Maintain patent airway.
2. Adequate oxygenation.
3. Obtain sputum specimens as needed.
4. Control the spread of infection.
5. Give high calorie and high protein diets.
6. Use suction if the patient can’t produce a specimen.
7. Provide a quiet environment.
8. Monitor ABG levels, especially if he’s hypoxic.
9. Assess respiratory status.
10. Auscultate breath sounds at least every 4 hours.
11. Monitor fluid intake and output.
12. Evaluate the effectiveness of administered medications.
13. Explain all procedures to the patient and family.