Asthma is a respiratory disease that makes breathing difficult, particularly while exhaling.
Asthma occurs when the bronchial tubes become inflamed, creating extra mucus and causing airways to narrow. The end result could range from a frequent tendency to cough to minor wheezing to severe difficulty breathing.
Clinical manifestations in patients with asthma were cough, dyspnoea, of wheezing. And in some patients is accompanied by chest pain, in patients who were free of attacks found no clinical symptoms, whereas the time of attack, it appears the patient is breathing fast, deep, restless, sitting with his hands and looked forward to refute the muscles of a respirator to work hard .
Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective Breathing Pattern related to decreased lung expansion.
Goal : The pattern of breathing effectively
Expected Outcomes :
- Effective breathing pattern
- Normal breath sounds or clean
- Vital signs within normal limits
- Diminished cough
- Lung expansion expands
Nursing Interventions – Ineffective Breathing Pattern for Asthma:
1. Assess the frequency of deep breathing, and chest expansion. Note the respiratory efforts include the use of auxiliary respiratory muscles / nasal dilation.
Rational: The speed usually reaches a depth of respiration varies depending on the degree of respiratory failure. Limited chest expansion associated with atelectasis or chest pain.
2. Auscultation of breath sounds and record the presence of breath sounds as crackles, wheezing.
Rational: crackles and wheezing accompanying airway obstruction / respiratory failure.
3. Elevate the head and help change the position.
Rational: Sitting height allowing easier breathing and lung expansion.
4. Observation of cough pattern and character of secretions.
Rational: alveolar congestion often result in cough / irritation.
5. Encourage / assist patients in breathing and coughing exercises.
Rational: Can increase / amount of sputum, which impaired ventilation and comfort plus the lack of effort to breathe.
- Give supplemental oxygen.
- Provide additional humidification for example: a nebulizer.
Rational: Maximizing breathing and reduce breathing work, providing the moisture of mucous membranes and help the dilution of secretions.